Henry H. Goddard. Human Efficiency and Levels of Intelligence. Princeton University Press, 1920
The topic of mental levels or "levels of intelligence" has been chosen for these lectures because while the subject is not altogether new it seems that there are phases of it that have not been dwelt upon but which enable us to look at some of the present day problems from a new angle, and suggest solutions different from any usually discussed. Stated in its boldest form our thesis is that the chief determiner of human conduct is a unitary mental process which we call intelligence: that this process is conditioned by a nervous mechanism that is inborn: that the degree of efficiency to be attained by that nervous mechanism and the consequent grade of intelligence or mental level for each individual is determined by the kind of chromosomes that come together with the union of the germ cells: that it is but little affected by any later influence except such serious accidents as may destroy part of the mechanism. - via APA books
Keith, Arthur. The Antiquity of Man
The chief works on the antiquity of man have hitherto been written by geologists and archeologists. Prof. Keith now treats the subject from the point of view of the human anatomist. The available facts and speculations of geology and archeology are all briefly stated and introduced at appropriate stages in the argument; but the anatomical characters of the various known human remains and their significance form the author's main theme. The plan has obvious disadvantages, for the value of the conclusions depends on the authenticity of the materials, which none but an expert geologist can determine. It also fosters a tendency to make dogmatic statements about the age of the various remains in terms of years, which may please a section of the inquisitive public but cannot be admitted as science. At the same time, the human anatomist is an essential factor in unraveling the story of primitive man, and Prof. Keith has produced an important work, which is all the more fascinating since it is the direct outcome of his own personal observations. - Nature vol. 96, pages 450–451 (1915)
Titchener, Edward. Lectures on the Experimental Psychology of the Thought-Processes. New York, 1909
The present volume is the result of an invitation to the author by the University of Illinois to deliver a series of lectures regarding recent experimental contributions to the psychology of thought. The author has printed the lectures as they were written for delivery at the University of Illinois, in March 1909. Appended notes are included at the end of the book. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Ribot, Th. Essay on the creative imagination. Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company, 1906
The present work is offered to the reader as an essay or first attempt only. It is not our intention here to undertake a complete monograph that would require a thick volume, but only to seek the underlying conditions of the creative imagination, showing that it has its beginning and principal source in the natural tendency of images to become objectified (or, more simply, in the motor elements inherent in the image), and then following it in its development under its manifold forms, whatever they may be. For I cannot but maintain that, at present, the psychology of the imagination is concerned almost wholly with its part in esthetic creation and in the sciences. We scarcely get beyond that; its other manifestations have been occasionally mentioned--never investigated. Yet invention in the fine arts and in the sciences is only a special case, and possibly not the principal one. We hope to show that in practical life, in mechanical, military, industrial, and commercial inventions, and in religious, social, and political institutions, the human mind has expanded and made permanent as much imagination as in all other fields. The constructive imagination is a faculty that in the course of ages has undergone a reduction--or at least, some profound changes. So, for reasons indicated, later on, the mythic activity has been taken in this work as the central point of our topic, as the primitive and typical form out of which the greater number of the others have arisen. The creative power is there shown entirely unconfined, freed from all hindrance, careless of the possible and the impossible; in a pure state, unadulterated by the opposing influence of imitation, of ratiocination, of the knowledge of natural laws and their uniformity. In the first or analytical part, we shall try to resolve the constructive imagination into its constitutive factors, and study each of them singly. The second or genetic part will follow the imagination in its development as a whole from the dimmest to the most complex forms. Finally, the third or concrete part will be no longer devoted to the imagination, but to imaginative beings, to the principal types of imagination that observation shows us. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Jacques Loeb. Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Comparative Psychology. The Science Series. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons,1900
Book review - https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.15.366.18
Wernicke, Carl. Grundriss der Psychiatrie in klinischen Vorlesungen. Leipzig, Thieme,, 1900
Soury, J. Le système nerveux central, structure et fonctions, histoire critique des théories et des doctrines. Paris: Masson et Cie, 1899
Jules-Auguste Soury (1842-1915), a Parisian theorist and historian of science, was the author of ‘The Central Nervous System', one of the most comprehensive and original accounts, until 1900, of the history of brain research. A contemporary of Jules Déjerine (1849-1917), Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934), and other pioneers of neurology, with whom he maintained contact, Soury is a rare case of a French philosopher with solid foundations in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. A quaint savant, Soury has been depicted as a strange hybrid produced by nature. His odd personality was coupled with elegance, solidity, and thoroughness in his neurological works. His prodigious facility for assimilating and discoursing the ideas of others has been somewhat clouded by his lamentable ideological tenets. Nevertheless, in his neurological writings, he bequeathed a unique anatomical and physiological history of intelligence, a natural history of the human mind, or, as he conceived it, a neurophilosophical sketch of the universe considered a cerebral phenomenon.
Pick, Arnold. Beiträge zur Pathologie und pathologischen Anatomie des Centralnervensystems, mit Bemerkungen zur normalen Anatomie desselben
Pick's neuropathology textbook was a landmark in the field." - Garrison's History of Neurology, p. 266
Binet, A. Alterations of personality. London: Chapman & Hall, 1896
Alterations of personality, published in 1892, is one of the most important works by Alfred Binet, a French psychologist, among the pioneers in his field, and the inventor of the first practical IQ test, the Binet-Simon test, considered by the journal Science 84 as one of twenty of the century's most significant developments or discoveries. He was one of the founding editors of L'année psychologique, a yearly volume comprising original articles and reviews of the progress of psychology still in print. - Publisher
Thomas Henry Huxley
Huxley, T. Man's Place in Nature and Other Essays. New York, 1896
Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature is an 1863 book by Thomas Henry Huxley, in which he gives evidence for the evolution of humans and apes from a common ancestor. It was the first book devoted to the topic of human evolution and discussed much of the anatomical and other evidence. Backed by this evidence, the book proposed to a wide readership that evolution applied as fully to man as to all other life.
Zangwill, Israel. Without Prejudice. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1896
Jewish author and political activist, Israel Zangwill (1864 - 1926), was passionate about campaigning for the oppressed. Many of his works address women's suffrage, pacifism, Zionism, and Jewish emancipation. He was a strong believer in assimilation and is best known for his influential novel "Children of the Ghetto: A Study of a Peculiar People" (1892) which was later released as a play titled "The Melting Pot" (1908). Zangwill is credited with coining the term "melting pot" to describe the fusion of various cultures and ethnicities. This is a rare volume of literary essays and travel accounts. Most of the selections were originally printed in Pall Mall Magazine.- Biblio.com
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