Arnold C. Klebs
Arnold C. Klebs. The History of Medicine as a Subject of Teaching and Research, 1914
Arnold C. Klebs (1870-1943) was a Swiss physician who specialized in the study of tuberculosis. Born in Bern, Switzerland, Arnold Klebs, the son of renowned bacteriologist Edwin Klebs, was raised in the presence of an extensive array of scientists, artists, and historians. Klebs worked with William Osler at Johns Hopkins University for a year after arriving in the U.S. and was a contemporary of William H. Welch. Following his work with Osler, he worked as a sanatorium director and tuberculosis specialist in Citronelle, Alabama and Chicago, Illinois. Given his long experience with the ailment, Klebs was named one of the first directors of the National Tuberculosis Institute.
The Investigations of Hermann Von Helmholtz on the Fundamental Principles of Mathematics and Mechanics
Koenigsberger, L. The investigations of Hermann Von Helmholtz on the fundamental principles of mathematics and mechanics, 1898
Leo Königsberger (1837-1921) was a German mathematician, and historian of science. He is best known for his three-volume biography of Hermann von Helmholtz, which remains the standard reference on the subject.
Larsen, A. The discovery of electromagnetism made in the year of 1820 by H.C. Oersted; published for the Oersted Committee at the expense of the state, 1920
Hans Christian Ørsted (1777-1851) was a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric current in a wire can deflect a magnetized compass needle, a phenomenon the importance of which was rapidly recognized, and which inspired the development of electromagnetic theory.
In 1806 Ørsted became a professor at the University of Copenhagen, where his first physical research dealt with electric currents and acoustics. During an evening lecture in April 1820, Ørsted discovered that a magnetic needle aligns itself perpendicularly to a current-carrying wire, definite experimental evidence of the relationship between electricity and magnetism.
Ørsted’s discovery (1820) of piperine, one of the pungent components of pepper, was an important contribution to chemistry, as was his preparation of metallic aluminum in 1825. In 1824 he founded a society devoted to the spread of scientific knowledge among the general public.
Since 1908 this society has awarded an Ørsted Medal for outstanding contributions by Danish physical scientists. In the early 1930s the name oersted was adopted for the physical unit of magnetic field strength in the centimeter-gram-second system.
Leavenworth, I. A Methological Analysis of the Physics of Pascal, 1930
Gilbert N. Lewis and Melvin Calvin
Lewis, G. and Galvin, M. The color of organic substances, 1930
Reprinted from Chemical Reviews, vol. 25, no. 2, October, 1930
Frank R. Lillie
Lillie, F. Studies of fertilization in Arbacia: VI. The mechanism of fertilization in Arbacia, 1914
Frank Rattray Lillie (1870-1947) was an American zoologist and an early pioneer of the study of embryology. Born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Lillie moved to the United States in 1891 to study for a summer at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts
T. D. Lysenko
Lysenko, T. Heredity and its variability, 1945
The classic of Stalinist aberrant genetic theory, horticulturist Lysenko rejected orthodox genetics in favor of the theories of those of the Russian horticulturist I. V. Michurin. Among his theories were that wheat raised under certain conditions produce seeds of rye and that theoretical biology must be fused with Soviet agricultural practice. He was the total autocrat of Soviet biology from 1948 through 1953, and believed that through inherited characteristics Stalinism would create a 'new man'. Lysenko held that heredity can be changed by husbandry, a theory that had disastrous impact on Soviet agriculture. He was dismissed from his post as director of the Soviet Institute of Genetics.
Translated from the Russian by Theodosius Dobzhansky
J.J. R. Macleod
J.J.R. Macleod. The Sugar of the Blood, 1921
John James Rickard Macleod (1876 – 1935) was a Scottish biochemist and physiologist. He devoted his career to diverse topics in physiology and biochemistry but was chiefly interested in carbohydrate metabolism. He is noted for his role in the discovery and isolation of insulin during his tenure as a lecturer at the University of Toronto, for which he and Frederick Banting received the 1923 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine. Awarding the prize to Macleod was controversial at the time, because according to Banting's version of events, Macleod's role in the discovery was negligible. It was not until decades after the events that an independent review acknowledged a far greater role than was attributed to him at first.
Herman Francis Mark, Hans Thirring, and Hans Hahn
Krise und Neuaufbau der exakten Wissenschaften, 1933
Fünf Vorträge: Mark: Die Erschütterung der klassischen Physik durch das Experiment. Thirring: Die Wandlung des Begriffssystemes der Physik. Hahn: Die Krise der Anschauung. Nöbeling: Die vierte Dimension und der krumme Raum. Menger: Die neue Logik. F. Deuticke, Wien 1933.
A. P. Mathews
Mathews, A.P. Artificial parthenogenesis produced by mechanical agitation, 1901
Albert P. Matthews
Matthews, A. Artificially produced mitotic division in unfertilized Arbacia eggs, 1900
Anrew Norman Meldrum
Meldrum, A. The eighteenth century revolution in science - The first phase, 1930
Andrew Norman Meldrum (1876-1934) was a Scottish scientist known for his work in organic chemistry and for his studies of the history of chemistry. It has been claimed that Meldrum's acid "is the only chemical to be named after a Scotsman."
Karl Menger, Hans Thirring, and Herman Francis Mark
Alte Probleme - neue Lösungen in den exakten Wissenschaften - Fünf Wiener Vorträge (Zweiter Zyklus), 1934
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