antigen presentation, DEC-205, mucosal immunology, dendritic cell, intestine cell, respiratory system
Dendritic cells (DCs) are located at body surfaces such as the skin, respiratory and genital tracts, and intestine. To further analyze intestinal DCs, we adapted an epidermal sheet separation technique and obtained two intestinal layers, facing the lumen and serosa. Unexpectedly, immunolabeling of the layer toward the serosa revealed a regular, dense, planar network of cells with prominent dendritic morphology within the external muscular layer and with increasing frequency along the length of the intestine. Direct examination of the serosal-disposed layers showed a significant fraction of the DCs to express DEC-205/CD205, CD11c, Langerin/CD207, Fcγ receptor/CD16/32, CD14, and low levels of activation markers, CD25, CD80, CD86, and CD95. By more sensitive FACS analyses, cells from this layer contained two CD11c+ populations of CD45+ CD205+, CD19- leukocytes, MHC II + and MHC II-. When ovalbumin conjugated to an anti-DEC-205 antibody was injected into mice, the conjugate targeted to these DCs, which upon isolation were able to stimulate ovalbumin-specific, CD4 + and CD8+ T cell antigen receptor-transgenic T cells. In vivo, these DCs responded to two microbial stimuli, systemic LPS and oral live bacteria, by up-regulating CD80, CD86, DEC-205, and Langerin within 12 h. This network of DCs thus represents a previously unrecognized antigen-presenting cell system in the intestine.
Flores-Langarica, A., S. Meza-Perez, J. Calderon-Amador, T. Estrada-Garcia, G. MacPherson, S. Lebecque, S. Saeland, R. M. Steinman, and L. Flores-Romo. 2005. "Network of Dendritic Cells within the Muscular Layer of the Mouse Intestine." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 (52): 19039-19044