Five mouse homologues of the human dendritic cell C-type lectin, DC-SIGN
amino acid sequence, chromosome 8, endothelium cell, dendritic cell, lymph node cell, macrophage
DC-SIGN, a human C-type lectin, is expressed on the surface of dendritic cells (DC), while a closely related human gene, DC-SIGNR or L-SIGN, is found on sinusoidal endothelial cells of liver and lymph node. Both DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR/L-SIGN can bind ICAM-3 and HIV gp120, and transmit HIV to susceptible cells in trans. Here, we report the cloning of five mouse genes homologous to human DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR/L-SIGN. Only one gene, named mouse DC-SIGN, is highly expressed in DC, and is not found in a panel of mouse macrophage and lymphocyte cell lines. The other four genes, named mouse SIGNR1 (SIGN-Related gene 1), SIGNR2, SIGNR3 and SIGNR4, are expressed at lower levels in various cells according to RT-PCR and Northern blot analyses on RNA. All the genes of mouse DC-SIGN and SIGNRs map to adjacent regions of chromosome 8 A1.2-1.3. However, like human DC-SIGN, only the mouse DC-SIGN gene is closely juxtaposed to the CD23 gene, while the other four SIGNR genes are located close to each other in a neighboring region. mRNAs of mouse DC-SIGN and three SIGNR genes encode type II transmembrane proteins (DC-SIGN, 238 amino acids; SIGNR1, 325 amino acids; SIGNR3, 237 amino acids; SIGNR4, 208 amino acids), but the SIGNR2 gene only encodes a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) without a cytosolic domain and a transmembrane domain (SIGNR2, 178 amino acids). Amino acid sequence similarities between the CRD of human DC-SIGN and the mouse homologues are 67% for DC-SIGN, 69% for SIGNR1, 65% for SIGNR2, 68% for SIGNR3 and 70% for SIGNR4 respectively. However, the membrane proximal neck domains in the mouse genes are much shorter than their counterparts in human DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR/L-SIGN. This family of mouse C-type lectins is therefore complex, but only one of the new genes, DC-SIGN, is juxtaposed to CD23 and is expressed at high levels in DC.
Park, C. G., K. Takahara, E. Umemoto, Y. Yashima, K. Matsubara, Y. Matsuda, B. E. Clausen, K. Inaba, and R. M. Steinman. 2001. "Five Mouse Homologues of the Human Dendritic Cell C-Type Lectin, DC-SIGN." International Immunology 13 (10): 1283-1290