cancer vaccines, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, dendritic cell, lymphocytic infiltration, lymph node metastasis, melanoma, vaccination
Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be promising adjuvants for inducing immunity to cancer. We used mature, monocyte-derived DCs to elicit resistance to malignant melanoma. The DCs were pulsed with Mage-3A1 tumor peptide and a recall antigens, tetanus toxoid or tuberculin. 11 far advanced stage IV melanoma patients, who were progressive despite standard chemotherapy, received five DC vaccinations at 14-d intervals. The first three vaccinations were administered into the skin, 3 x 106 DCs each subcutaneously and intradermally, followed by two intravenous injections of 6 x 106 and 12 x 106 DCs, respectively. Only minor (less than or equal to grade II) side effects were observed. Immunity to the recall antigen was boosted. Significant expansions of Mage-3A1-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) precursors were induced in 8/11 patients. Curiously, these immune responses often declined after the intravenous vaccinations. Regressions of individual metastases (skin, lymph node, lung, and liver) were evident in 6/11 patients. Resolution of skin metastases in two of the patients was accompanied by erythema and CD8+ T cell infiltration, whereas nonregressing lesions lacked CD8+ T cells as well as Mage-3 mRNA expression. This study proves the principle that DC 'vaccines' can frequently expand tumor-specific CTLs and elicit regressions even in advanced cancer and, in addition, provides evidence for an active CD8+ CTL-tumor cell interaction in situ as well as escape by lack of tumor antigen expression.
Thurner, B., I. Haendle, C. Röder, D. Dieckmann, P. Keikavoussi, H. Jonuleit, A. Bender, et al. 1999. "Vaccination with Mage-3A1 Peptide-Pulsed Nature, Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Expands Specific Cytotoxic T Cells and Induces Regression of some Metastases in Advanced Stage IV Melanoma." Journal of Experimental Medicine 190 (11): 1669-1678