CD14 antigen, chemokine receptor, dendritic cell, HIV-1, virus replication, T lymphocyte
Dendritic cells (DCs) can develop from CD14+ peripheral blood monocytes cultured in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 (IL-4). By 6 days in culture, the cells have the characteristics of immature DCs and can be further induced to mature by inflammatory stimuli or by monocyte-conditioned medium. After infection with macrophagetropic (M-tropic) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), monocytes and mature DCs show a block in reverse transcription and only form early transcripts that can be amplified with primers for the R/U5 region. In contrast, immature DCs cultured for 6 or 11 days in GM-CSF and IL-4 complete reverse transcription and show a strong signal when LTR/gag primers are used. Blood monocytes and mature DCs do not replicate HIV-1, whereas immature DCs can be productively infected, but only with M-tropic HIV-1. The virus produced by immature DCs readily infects activated T cells. Although mature DCs do not produce virus, these cells transmit both M- and T-tropic virus to T cells. In the cocultures, both DCs and T cells must express functional chemokine coreceptors for viral replication to occur. Therefore, the developmental stage of DCs can influence the interaction of these cells with HIV-1 and influence the extent to which M-tropic and T-tropic virus can replicate.
Granelli-Piperno, A., E. Delgado, V. Finkel, W. Paxton, and R. M. Steinman. 1998. "Immature Dendritic Cells Selectively Replicate Macrophagetropic (M- Tropic) Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1, while Mature Cells Efficiently Transmit both M- and T-Tropic Virus to T Cells." Journal of Virology 72 (4): 2733-2737