Date of Award
neural circuits, neural noise, information processing, spike timing dependent plasticity, neural code
Computational neuroscience is concerned with answering two intertwined questions that are based on the assumption that spatio-temporal patterns of spikes form the universal language of the nervous system. First, what function does a specific neural circuitry perform in the elaboration of a behavior? Second, how do neural circuits process behaviorally-relevant information? Non-linear system analysis has proven instrumental in understanding the coding strategies of early neural processing in various sensory modalities. Yet, at higher levels of integration, it fails to help in deciphering the response of assemblies of neurons to complex naturalistic stimuli. If neural activity can be assumed to be primarily driven by the stimulus at early stages of processing, the intrinsic activity of neural circuits interacts with their high-dimensional input to transform it in a stochastic non-linear fashion at the cortical level. As a consequence, any attempt to fully understand the brain through a "system analysis" approach becomes illusory. However, it is increasingly advocated that neural noise plays a constructive role in neural processing, facilitating information transmission. This prompts to gain insight into the neural code by studying the stochasticity of neuronal activity, which is viewed as biologically relevant. Such an endeavor requires the design of guiding theoretical principles to assess the potential benefits of neural noise. In this context, meeting the requirements of biological relevance and computational tractability, while providing a stochastic description of neural activity, prescribes the adoption of the integrate-and-fire model. In this thesis, founding ourselves on the path-wise description of neuronal activity, we propose to further the stochastic analysis of the integrate-and fire model through a combination of numerical and theoretical techniques. To begin, we expand upon the path-wise construction of linear diffusions, which offers a natural setting to describe leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, as inhomogeneous Markov chains. Based on the theoretical analysis of the first-passage problem, we then explore the interplay between the internal neuronal noise and the statistics of injected perturbations at the single unit level, and examine its implications on the neural coding. At the population level, we also develop an exact event-driven implementation of a Markov network of perfect integrate-and-fire neurons with both time delayed instantaneous interactions and arbitrary topology. We hope our approach will provide new paradigms to understand how sensory inputs perturb neural intrinsic activity and accomplish the goal of developing a new technique for identifying relevant patterns of population activity. From a perturbative perspective, our study shows how injecting frozen noise in different flavors can help characterize internal neuronal noise, which is presumably functionally relevant to information processing. From a simulation perspective, our event-driven framework is amenable to scrutinize the stochastic behavior of simple recurrent motifs as well as temporal dynamics of large scale networks under spike-timing-dependent plasticity.
Taillefumier, Thibaud, "Sample Path Analysis of Integrate-and-Fire Neurons" (2012). Student Theses and Dissertations. 251.